Influence of multiple laser shock peening treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V alloy fabricated by electron beam melting
Liang Lan, Ruyi Xin, Xinyuan Jin, Shuang Gao, Bo He. Influence of multiple laser shock peening treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V alloy fabricated by electron beam melting, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 29 (2022), No. 9, p. 1780-1787.
additive manufacturing; laser shock peening; electron beam melting; residual stress; Ti–6Al–4V alloy; mechanical properties
Laser shock peening (LSP) is an attractive post-processing method to tailor surface microstructure and enhance mechanical performances of additive manufactured (AM) components. The effects of multiple LSP treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V part produced by electron beam melting (EBM), as a mature AM process, were studied in this work. Microstructure, surface topography, residual stress, and tensile performance of EBM-manufactured Ti–6Al–4V specimens were systematically analyzed subjected to different LSP treatments. The distribution of porosities in EBM sample was assessed via X-ray computed tomography. The results showed that EBM samples with two LSP treatments possessed a lower porosity value of 0.05% compared to the value of 0.08% for the untreated samples. The strength of EBM samples with two LSP treatments was remarkably raised by 12% as compared with the as-built samples. The grains of α phase were refined in near-surface layer, and a dramatic increase in the depth and magnitude of compressive residual stress (CRS) was achieved in EBM sample with multiple LSP treatments. The grain refinement of α phase and CRS with larger depth were responsible for the strength enhancement of EBM samples with two LSP treatments.
 S.Y. Liu and Y.C. Shin, Additive manufacturing of Ti6Al4V alloy: A review, Mater. Des., 164(2019), art. No. 107552.
 J.M. Manero, F.J. Gil, and J.A. Planell, Deformation mechanisms of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with a martensitic microstructure subjected to oligocyclic fatigue, Acta Mater., 48(2000), No. 13, p. 3353.
 T. Voisin, N.P. Calta, S.A. Khairallah, J.B. Forien, L. Balogh, R.W. Cunningham, A.D. Rollett, and Y.M. Wang, Defects-dictated tensile properties of selective laser melted Ti–6Al–4V, Mater. Des., 158(2018), p. 113.
 Y.M. Wang, T. Voisin, J.T. McKeown, J. Ye, N.P. Calta, Z. Li, Z. Zeng, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, T.T. Roehling, R.T. Ott, M.K. Santala, P.J. Depond, M.J. Matthews, A.V. Hamza, and T. Zhu, Additively manufactured hierarchical stainless steels with high strength and ductility, Nat. Mater., 17(2018), No. 1, p. 63.
 C.Y. Chen, Y.C. Xie, X.C. Yan, S. Yin, H. Fukanuma, R.Z. Huang, R.X. Zhao, J. Wang, Z.M. Ren, M. Liu, and H.L. Liao, Effect of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) on microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated by cold spray additive manufacturing, Addit. Manuf., 27(2019), p. 595.
 D. Zhang, D. Qiu, M.A. Gibson, Y. Zheng, H.L. Fraser, D.H. StJohn, and M.A. Easton, Additive manufacturing of ultrafine-grained high-strength titanium alloys, Nature, 576(2019), No. 7785, p. 91.
 A.T. Silvestri, S. Foglia, R. Borrelli, S. Franchitti, C. Pirozzi, and A. Astarita, Electron beam melting of Ti6Al4V: Role of the process parameters under the same energy density, J. Manuf. Processes, 60(2020), p. 162.
 X.Q. Wang and K. Chou, EBSD study of beam speed effects on Ti–6Al–4V alloy by powder bed electron beam additive manufacturing, J. Alloys Compd., 748(2018), p. 236.
 A.A. Antonysamy, J. Meyer, and P.B. Prangnell, Effect of build geometry on the β-grain structure and texture in additive manufacture of Ti6Al4V by selective electron beam melting, Mater. Charact., 84(2013), p. 153.
 S. Kalainathan and S. Prabhakaran, Recent development and future perspectives of low energy laser shock peening, Opt. Laser Technol., 81(2016), p. 137.
 S.J. Lainé, K.M. Knowles, P.J. Doorbar, R.D. Cutts, and D. Rugg, Microstructural characterisation of metallic shot peened and laser shock peened Ti–6Al–4V, Acta Mater., 123(2017), p. 350.
 X.C. Yan, S. Yin, C.Y. Chen, R. Jenkins, R. Lupoi, R. Bolot, W.Y. Ma, M. Kuang, H.L. Liao, J. Lu, and M. Liu, Fatigue strength improvement of selective laser melted Ti6Al4V using ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition, Mater. Res. Lett., 7(2019), No. 8, p. 327.
 C.S. Montross, T. Wei, L. Ye, G. Clark, and Y.W. Mai, Laser shock processing and its effects on microstructure and properties of metal alloys: A review, Int. J. Fatigue, 24(2002), No. 10, p. 1021.
 P. Peyre, C. Carboni, P. Forget, G. Beranger, C. Lemaitre, and D. Stuart, Influence of thermal and mechanical surface modifications induced by laser shock processing on the initiation of corrosion pits in 316L stainless steel, J. Mater. Sci., 42(2007), No. 16, p. 6866.
 K.Y. Luo, J.Z. Lu, Q.W. Wang, M. Luo, H. Qi, and J.Z. Zhou, Residual stress distribution of Ti–6Al–4V alloy under different ns-LSP processing parameters, Appl. Surf. Sci., 285(2013), p. 607.
 W.J. Jia, Q. Hong, H.Z. Zhao, L. Li, and D. Han, Effect of laser shock peening on the mechanical properties of a near-α titanium alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 606(2014), p. 354.
 J. Wang, Y.L. Lu, D.S. Zhou, L.Y. Sun, L. Xie, and J.T. Wang, Mechanical properties and microstructural response of 2A14 aluminum alloy subjected to multiple laser shock peening impacts, Vacuum, 165(2019), p. 193.
 L. Hackel, J.R. Rankin, A. Rubenchik, W.E. King, and M. Matthews, Laser peening: A tool for additive manufacturing post-processing, Addit. Manuf., 24(2018), p. 67.
 W. Guo, R.J. Sun, B.W. Song, Y. Zhu, F. Li, Z.G. Che, B. Li, C. Guo, L. Liu, and P. Peng, Laser shock peening of laser additive manufactured Ti6Al4V titanium alloy, Surf. Coat. Technol., 349(2018), p. 503.
 N. Kalentics, K. Huang, M. Ortega Varela de Seijas, A. Burn, V. Romano, and R.E. Logé, Laser shock peening: A promising tool for tailoring metallic microstructures in selective laser melting, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 266(2019), p. 612.
 R.J. Sun, L.H. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Guo, P. Peng, B.Q. Cong, J.F. Sun, Z.G. Che, B. Li, C. Guo, and L. Liu, Microstructure, residual stress and tensile properties control of wire-arc additive manufactured 2319 aluminum alloy with laser shock peening, J. Alloys Compd., 747(2018), p. 255.
 J.Z. Lu, H.F. Lu, X. Xu, J.H. Yao, J. Cai, and K.Y. Luo, High-performance integrated additive manufacturing with laser shock peening-induced microstructural evolution and improvement in mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V alloy components, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 148(2020), art. No. 103475.
 L. Lan, X.Y. Jin, S. Gao, B. He, and Y.H. Rong, Microstructural evolution and stress state related to mechanical properties of electron beam melted Ti–6Al–4V alloy modified by laser shock peening, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 50(2020), p. 153.
 J.Z. Lu, K.Y. Luo, Y.K. Zhang, C.Y. Cui, G.F. Sun, J.Z. Zhou, L. Zhang, J. You, K.M. Chen, and J.W. Zhong, Grain refinement of LY2 aluminum alloy induced by ultra-high plastic strain during multiple laser shock processing impacts, Acta Mater., 58(2010), No. 11, p. 3984.
 K.M. Li, Y.X. Hu, and Z.Q. Yao, Experimental study of micro dimple fabrication based on laser shock processing, Opt. Laser Technol., 48(2013), p. 216.
 N. Kalentics, E. Boillat, P. Peyre, C. Gorny, C. Kenel, C. Leinenbach, J. Jhabvala, and R.E. Logé, 3D Laser Shock Peening − A new method for the 3D control of residual stresses in Selective Laser Melting, Mater. Des., 130(2017), p. 350.
 L. Lan, R.Y. Xin, X.Y. Jin, S. Gao, B. He, Y.H. Rong, and N. Min, Effects of laser shock peening on microstructure and properties of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy fabricated via selective laser melting, Materials, 13(2020), No. 15, art. No. 3261.
 G. Sun, X. Fang, Z. Tong, Z. Ni, and Y. Lu, Effect of laser shock peening on aluminium alloy laser-welds, Surf. Eng., 32(2016), No. 12, p. 943.
 A.I. Dekhtyar, B.N. Mordyuk, D.G. Savvakin, V.I. Bondarchuk, I.V. Moiseeva, and N.I. Khripta, Enhanced fatigue behavior of powder metallurgy Ti–6Al–4V alloy by applying ultrasonic impact treatment, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 641(2015), p. 348.
 N. Kalentics, M.O.V. de Seijas, S. Griffiths, C. Leinenbach, and R.E. Logé, 3D laser shock peening - A new method for improving fatigue properties of selective laser melted parts, Addit. Manuf., 33(2020), art. No. 101112.
 Y.W. Luo, M.Y. Wang, J.G. Tu, Y. Jiang, and S.G. Jiao, Reduction of residual stress in porous Ti6Al4V by in situ double scanning during laser additive manufacturing, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 28(2021), No. 11, pp. 1844-1853.
 J.N. Johnson and R.W. Rohde, Dynamic deformation twinning in shock-loaded iron, J. Appl. Phys., 42(1971), No. 11, p. 4171.
 X.Y. Jin, L. Lan, S. Gao, B. He, and Y.H. Rong, Effects of laser shock peening on microstructure and fatigue behavior of Ti–6Al–4V alloy fabricated via electron beam melting, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 780(2020), art. No. 139199.
 F. Yin, G.J. Cheng, R. Xu, K.J. Zhao, Q. Li, J. Jian, S. Hu, S.H. Sun, L.C. An, and Q.Y. Han, Ultrastrong nanocrystalline stainless steel and its Hall-Petch relationship in the nanoscale, Scripta Mater., 155(2018), p. 26.
 A. Di Schino and J.M. Kenny, Grain refinement strengthening of a micro-crystalline high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, Mater. Lett., 57(2003), No. 12, p. 1830.