International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials

Article Title

Microstructural heterogeneity and bonding strength of planar interface formed in additive manufacturing of Al–Mg–Si alloy based on friction and extrusion

Corresponding Author

Xinqi Yang, E-mail: xqyang@tju.edu.cn


solid-state additive manufacturing; aluminum alloy; precipitate; crystallographic texture; heat treatment


Single-pass deposits of 6061 aluminum alloy with a single-layer thickness of 4 mm were fabricated by force-controlled friction- and extrusion-based additive manufacturing. The formation characteristics of the interface, which were achieved by using a featureless shoulder, were investigated and elucidated. The microstructure and bonding strength of the final build both with and without heat treatment were explored. A pronounced microstructural heterogeneity was observed throughout the thickness of the final build. Grains at the interface with Cu, {213}<111>, and Goss orientations prevailed, which were refined to approximately 4.0 μm. Nearly all of the hardening precipitates were dissolved, resulting in the bonding interface displaying the lowest hardness. The fresh layer, subjected to thermal processes and plastic deformation only once, was dominated by a strong recrystallization texture with a Cube orientation. The previous layer, subjected twice to thermal processes and plastic deformation, was governed by P- and Goss-related components. The ultimate tensile strength along the build direction in as-deposited and heat-treated states could reach 57.0% and 82.9% of the extruded 6061-T651 aluminum alloy.


[1] H.Z. Yu, M.E. Jones, G.W. Brady, R.J. Griffiths, D. Garcia, H.A. Rauch, et al., Non-beam-based metal additive manufacturing enabled by additive friction stir deposition, Scripta Mater., 153(2018), p. 122.

[2] Z.Q. Liu, P.L. Zhang, S.W. Li, D. Wu, and Z.S. Yu, Wire and arc additive manufacturing of 4043 Al alloy using a cold metal transfer method, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 27(2020), No. 6, p. 783.

[3] J.H. Martin, B.D. Yahata, J.M. Hundley, J.A. Mayer, T.A. Schaedler, and T.M. Pollock, 3D printing of high-strength aluminium alloys, Nature, 549(2017), No. 7672, p. 365.

[4] K. Kandasamy, L.E. Renaghan, J.R. Calvert, K.D. Creehan, and J.P. Schultz, Solid-state additive manufacturing of aluminum and magnesium alloys, [in] Proceedings of the Materials Science and Technology Conference and Exhibition, Montreal, 2013, p. 59.

[5] A.A. van der Stelt, T.C. Bor, H.J.M. Geijselaers, R. Akkerman, and A.H. van den Boogaard, Cladding of advanced Al alloys employing friction stir welding, Key Eng. Mater., 554-557(2013), p. 1014.

[6] O.G. Rivera, P.G. Allison, J.B. Jordon, O.L. Rodriguez, L.N. Brewer, Z. McClelland, et al., Microstructures and mechanical behavior of Inconel 625 fabricated by solid-state additive manufacturing, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 694(2017), p. 1.

[7] J. Gandra, H. Krohn, R.M. Miranda, P. Vilaça, L. Quintino, and J.F. dos Santos, Friction surfacing—A review, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 214(2014), No. 5, p. 1062.

[8] K. Anderson-Wedge, D.Z. Avery, S.R. Daniewicz, J.W. Sowards, P.G. Allison, J.B. Jordon, et al., Characterization of the fatigue behavior of additive friction stir-deposition AA2219, Int. J. Fatigue, 142(2021), art. No. 105951.

[9] J.K. Yoder, R.J. Griffiths, and H.Z. Yu, Deformation-based additive manufacturing of 7075 aluminum with wrought-like mechanical properties, Mater. Des., 198(2021), art. No. 109288.

[10] W.D. Hartley, D. Garcia, J.K. Yoder, E. Poczatek, J.H. Forsmark, S.G. Luckey, et al., Solid-state cladding on thin automotive sheet metals enabled by additive friction stir deposition, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 291(2021), art. No. 117045.

[11] B.J. Phillips, D.Z. Avery, T. Liu, O.L. Rodriguez, C.J.T. Mason, J.B. Jordon, et al., Microstructure-deformation relationship of additive friction stir-deposition Al–Mg–Si, Materialia, 7(2019), art. No. 100387.

[12] B.A. Rutherford, D.Z. Avery, B.J. Phillips, H.M. Rao, K.J. Doherty, P.G. Allison, et al., Effect of thermomechanical processing on fatigue behavior in solid-state additive manufacturing of Al–Mg–Si alloy, Metals, 10(2020), No. 7, art. No. 947.

[13] D. Garcia, W.D. Hartley, H.A. Rauch, R.J. Griffiths, R.X. Wang, Z.J. Kong, et al., In situ investigation into temperature evolution and heat generation during additive friction stir deposition: A comparative study of Cu and Al–Mg–Si, Addit. Manuf., 34(2020), art. No. 101386.

[14] M.E.J. Perry, R.J. Griffiths, D. Garcia, J.M. Sietins, Y.H. Zhu, and H.Z. Yu, Morphological and microstructural investigation of the non-planar interface formed in solid-state metal additive manufacturing by additive friction stir deposition, Addit. Manuf., 35(2020), art. No. 101293.

[15] R.J. Griffiths, D. Garcia, J. Song, V.K. Vasudevan, M.A. Steiner, W.J. Cai, et al., Solid-state additive manufacturing of aluminum and copper using additive friction stir deposition: Process-microstructure linkages, Materialia, 15(2021), art. No. 100967.

[16] B.J. Phillips, C.J.T. Mason, S.C. Beck, D.Z. Avery, K.J. Doherty, P.G. Allison, et al., Effect of parallel deposition path and interface material flow on resulting microstructure and tensile behavior of Al–Mg–Si alloy fabricated by additive friction stir deposition, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 295(2021), art. No. 117169.

[17] R.R. Shen and P. Efsing, Overcoming the drawbacks of plastic strain estimation based on KAM, Ultramicroscopy, 184(2018), p. 156.

[18] G.J. Baczynski, R. Guzzo, M.D. Ball, and D.J. Lloyd, Development of roping in an aluminum automotive alloy AA6111, Acta Mater., 48(2000), No. 13, p. 3361.

[19] O. Engler and J. Hirsch, Texture control by thermomechanical processing of AA6xxx Al–Mg–Si sheet alloys for automotive applications—A review, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 336(2002), No. 1-2, p. 249.

[20] P.D. Wu, S.R. MacEwen, D.J. Lloyd, and K.W. Neale, Effect of cube texture on sheet metal formability, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 364(2004), No. 1-2, p. 182.

[21] C.D. Marioara, S.J. Andersen, J. Røyset, O. Reiso, S. Gulbrandsen-Dahl, T.E. Nicolaisen, et al., Improving thermal stability in Cu-containing Al–Mg–Si alloys by precipitate optimization, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 45(2014), No. 7, p. 2938.

[22] T. Saito, S. Muraishi, C.D. Marioara, S.J. Andersen, J. Røyset, and R. Holmestad, The effects of low Cu additions and predeformation on the precipitation in a 6060 Al–Mg–Si alloy, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 44(2013), No. 9, p. 4124.

[23] M. Torsæter, W. Lefebvre, C.D. Marioara, S.J. Andersen, J.C. Walmsley, and R. Holmestad, Study of intergrown L and Q′ precipitates in Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloys, Scripta Mater., 64(2011), No. 9, p. 817.

[24] K. Buchanan, K. Colas, J. Ribis, A. Lopez, and J. Garnier, Analysis of the metastable precipitates in peak-hardness aged Al–Mg–Si(–Cu) alloys with differing Si contents, Acta Mater., 132(2017), p. 209.

[25] C. Zener and J.H. Hollomon, Effect of strain rate upon plastic flow of steel, J. Appl. Phys., 15(1944), No. 1, p. 22.

[26] S.F. Medina and C.A. Hernandez, Modelling of the dynamic recrystallization of austenite in low alloy and microalloyed steels, Acta Mater., 44(1996), No. 1, p. 165.

[27] F.J. Humphreys and M. Hatherly, Recrystallization and Related Annealing Phenomena, 2nd ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2004, p. 327.

[28] B. Bagheri, M. Abbasi, and A. Abdollahzadeh, Microstructure and mechanical characteristics of AA6061-T6 joints produced by friction stir welding, friction stir vibration welding and tungsten inert gas welding: A comparative study, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 28(2021), No. 3, p. 450.

[29] K. Huang, K. Zhang, K. Marthinsen, and R.E. Logé, Controlling grain structure and texture in Al–Mn from the competition between precipitation and recrystallization, Acta Mater., 141(2017), p. 360.

[30] S.G. Chowdhury, S. Das, B. Ravikumar, and P.K. De, Twinning-induced sluggish evolution of texture during recrystallization in AISI 316L stainless steel after cold rolling, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 37(2006), No. 8, p. 2349.